AZOTEMIA

AZOTEMIA

Azotemia is a biochemical abnormality, defined as an elevation or built up of, nitrogenous products, creatinine in the blood and other secondary waste products within the body. The frequency of azotemia is highest in people aged between 45 and 64 years. It is quite common, responds for 8% to 10% hospital admissions and more so associated with a higher risk of mortality. It can be caused by higher than normal production of nitrogen containing substances, improper filtration in the kidneys or reabsorption of urine back to the bloodstream. Other causes may be whenever there is an obstruction in urinary tract infection or disease, heart failure, complications of diabetes, medications, fatigue, dehydration etc. There are mainly three types of azotemia – Prerenal, Intrinsic and Post renal. Pre renal azotemia manifest from some injury/insult source before the kidneys. Intrinsic usually occurs from infection, sepsis and disease. A urinary tract obstruction causes post renal azotemia. Out of three types of azotemia, pre renal is most common and can be reversed. These each can lead to acute kidney injury if left untreated or if not discovered early.
Azotemia is characterized by oligouria or anuria, confusion, thirst, edema, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting etc. It is usually diagnosed by urine and blood test. The hallmark test for azotemia is the serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) level and serum creatinine level. The reference range for BUN is 8-20 mg/dl and the normal range for creatinine is 0.7-1.4 mg/dl. Treatment involves medication, intravenous fluids and dialysis.

By -ASSISTANT PROFESSOR – Mrs. Anita Mehar
Department – Biochemistry
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