CHRONIC BRONCHITIS

Bronchitis is a disease of lungs.Chronic bronchitis is characterized by chronic productive cough lasting more than 3 months occurring within a span of 2-3 years. Smoking is the leading risk factor and cause of the chronic bronchitis. Many inhaled irritants such as smog, industrial pollutants, and toxic chemicals can cause chronic bronchitis. Bacterial and viral infections can cause acute bronchitis repeated exposure to the infection can result in chronic bronchitis (predominantly Influenza type A and B). The pathogenesis behind chronic bronchitis is thought to be caused by overproduction and hypersecretion of mucus by goblet cells. The airways are lined by epithelial cells, these cells they respond to toxins and infection by eliciting an inflammatory response and structural changes in lung parenchyma. Persistent increase in forced expiratory flow rate is most typical finding, this airflow obstruction is typically diagnosed by spirometry. The investigations which are helpful in confirming the diagnosis of chronic bronchitis are a complete blood count, bacterial culture and a chest x-ray which shows flattening of diaphragm and hyperinflation of lungs. Pulmonary function test is of gold standard in confirming the diagnosis. The primary aim of treatment is to relieve symptoms, prevent complication and slow the progression of the disease which can be achieved by lifestyle modification and medical management. Lifestyle modification involves cessation of smoking and alcohol along with dietary changes. Medical management involves short and long acting bronchodilators, inhaled and oral corticosteroids, antibiotics and phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors. Surgical management involves lung volume reduction surgery, bullectomy and lung transplantation.

By -Assistant Professor – : Dr. Shakshi Naithani
Department – Dept. of Physiotherapy
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