Respiratory System


In respiratory system the oxygen of the air enters into our lungs through the nasal cavity which is lined with hairs to clean the air and then oxygen moves through out of our body. Our lungs remove the oxygen and pass it through our bloodstream, where it’s carried off to the tissues and organs that allow us to walk, talk, and move. Our lungs also take carbon dioxide from our blood and release it into the air when we breathe out. The other organs like sinuses, pharynx, tonsils, larynx & trachea are the organs which helps in breathing system.

The sinuses are hollow spaces in the bones of our head. Small openings connect them to the nasal cavity. The sinuses help to regulate the temperature and humidity of the air that we breathe in, as well as to lighten the bone structure of the head and to give tone to your voice. Air can also enters through our oral cavity (mouth), especially if we have a mouth-breathing habit or our nasal passages may be temporarily blocked.

The Tonsils are lymph nodes in the wall of our pharynx. Tonsils are not an important part of the germ-fighting system of the body. If they become infected, they are sometimes removed but the Pharynx collects incoming air from our nose and passes it downward to our trachea (windpipe).

The epiglottis is a flap of tissue that guards the entrance to our trachea. It closes when anything is swallowed that should go into the oesophagus and stomach.

The Larynx contains our vocal cords. When moving air is breathed in and out, it creates voice sounds.

The oesophagus is the passage leading from our mouth and throat to our stomach, whereas the Trachea (windpipe) is the passage leading from our pharynx to the lungs.

The ribs are bones supporting and protecting our chest cavity. They move a small amount and help the lungs to expand and contract. The trachea divides into the two main Bronchi (tubes), one for each lung. The bronchi, in turn, subdivide further into bronchioles.

The right lung is divided into three Lobes while left lung is divided into two lobes. The pleura are the two membranes that surround each lobe of our lungs and separate the lungs from our chest wall.

The bronchial tubes are lined with cilia (like very small hairs) that have a wave-like motion. This motion carries mucus (sticky phlegm or liquid) upward and out into the throat, where it is either coughed up or swallowed. The mucus catches and holds much of the dust, germs, and other unwanted matter that has invaded our lungs. Our lungs get rid of the mucus through coughing.

The diaphragm is the strong wall of muscle that separates our chest cavity from abdominal cavity. By moving downward, it creates suction to draw in air and expand the lungs. The smallest section of the bronchi are called bronchioles, at the end of which are the alveoli (plural of alveolus).

The alveoli are the very small air sacs that are the destination of air that we breathe in. The capillaries are blood vessels that are imbedded in the walls of the alveoli. Blood passes through the capillaries, brought to them by the PULMONARY ARTERY and taken away by the PULMONARY VEIN. While in the capillaries, the blood moves carbon dioxide into the alveoli and takes up oxygen from the air in the alveoli.




By – Professor Dr. Rashmi Dhingra
Deputy Director
UCBMSH Magazine – (YouthRainBow)
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