The corneal grafting refers to KERATOPLASTY which means corneal transplantation, in which the diseased or damaged corneal tissue of patient like corneal scarring, corneal dystrophies, corneal opacities, keratoconus are excised and replaced with a clear and healthy cornea. Further it is a most common treatment of corneal blindness.
In this condition the patient’s own cornea is trephine and rotated to transfer the pupillary area having a small corneal opacity, this type of keratoplasty is called rotational keratoplasty. While, if the patient cornea of one eye is opaque and the other eye is blind due to posterior segment disease like optic atrophy, RD with clear cornea, then cornea of the two eyes are exchanged with each other and is called contralateral keratoplasty.
ALLO GRAFTING / ALLO KERATOPLASTY
Partial / lamellar keratoplasty in which only the superficial part of corneal tissue removed and replaced by the donor corneal tissue
Penetrating keratoplasty (PK) in which the full corneal thickness should be removed and replaced by the donor cornea.
Endothelial keratoplasty in which deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DLK) in this condition the deepest layer of the cornea (endothelial layer) should be removed only.
EFFECT OF CORNEAL GRAFTING
Optically it improves the vision which is defected by corneal opacity, bullous keratopathy, corneal dystrophies, advanced keratoconus. Therapeutically is used to replace inflamed cornea, cosmetically improve the appearance of the eye. Tectonic graft that restores integrity of eyeball after corneal perforation and in marked corneal thinning.