Transposons: A Jumping Genes and Their Effect on the Kernel Color of Indian corn

Colours Corn

Grains of corn are available in completely different colours, like purple, yellow and white. Generally the individual grains are purple with white streaks or marking. This marking result defies Mendel’s basic principles of genetic science as a result of individual grains is also varicolored instead of one color. The reason for this development involves “jumping genes” or transposons, and earned Dr. Barbara McClintock the celebrated honor in drugs in 1983 for her life-long analysis on corn genetic science.
Transposons are genes that move from one location to a different on a body. Within the pigmented protein layer of corn grains, the position of transposons could inhibit or block pigment production in some cells. As an example, if the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) moves to a footing adjacent to a pigment-producing gene, the cells are unable to provide the purple pigment. This leads to white streaks or marking instead of a solid purple grain. The length of a deoxyribonucleic acid during this “turned off” position affects the degree of marking. If the pigmentation cistron is turned off long enough by a deoxyribonucleic acid, the grain is going to be fully colouration. The reddish-purple patterns caused by transposons are also blotches, dots, irregular lines and streaks. The following illustration shows however grain colour corn is also full of transposons. The various cards represent a linear sequence of genes on a body. The ace of spades represents a deoxyribonucleic acid that moves to completely different positions on the body. The jack of diamonds represents the cistron for purple pigmentation within the corn grain. Once the sequence deoxyribonucleic acid moves to a footing adjacent to the gene for pigmentation (jack of diamonds), the pigmentation cistron is blocked and no purple is synthesized (white area). When the sequence deoxyribonucleic acid (ace of spades) moves removed from the gene for pigment production (jack of diamonds), the assembly of purple pigment is resumed (continuous purple area). During this example the cistron for pigment production (jack of diamonds) isn’t adjacent to a deoxyribonucleic acid (ace of spades):

When a deoxyribonucleic acid moves to completely different positions inside cells of the corn kernel, the coloration cistron is “turned on” or “turned off” looking on whether or not it lands in a very position adjacent to the pigmentation cistron. Transposons may additionally have a profound result on embryonic development and growth formation in animal cells. Oncogenes (genes that cause tumors) is also activated by the random reshuffle of transposons to a footing adjacent to the transforming gene. Transposons may additionally be helpful in gene-splicing with being cells, by splice in transposons to activate bound genes. The implications from Barbara McClintock’s discovery of transposons are also sweeping and as important as Watson and Crick’s discovery of the structure of deoxyribonucleic acid.

By -ASSISTENT PROFESSOR – –Dr. Ashish Uniyal
Department – AGRICULTURE
UCBMSH Magazine – (YouthRainBow)
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