Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which mainly affects the lungs, making pulmonary disease the most common presentation. The organ system most commonly affected include the respiratory system, the gastrointestinal (GI) system, the lymph reticular system, the skin, the central nervous system, the musculoskeletal system, the reproductive system, and the liver. According to the site of infection Tuberculosis is of two type;
Pulmonary tuberculosis & extra pulmonary tuberculosis.
- tuberculosis is a non-spore forming, non-motile, aerobic, facultative, intracellular bacteria. The organism is neither gram-positive nor gram-negative because of very poor reaction with the Gram stain. Tuberculosis infection is resistance to several antibiotics and has ability to survive under extreme conditions such as extreme acidity or alkalinity.
Histopathology – granuloma of tuberculosis shows –
Caseation or necrosis demonstrable as a region of central eosinophilia.
Presence of Multinucleated giant cells.
Clinical features –
Productive cough for more than 3 weeks
Dull chest pain
Chest pain (can also result from tuberculous acute pericarditis)
Other clinical features manifest according to the site involved.
Diagnosis is done by Monteux tuberculin skin test, AFB smear &blood cultures, ELISA test and nucleic acid amplification test.
Management – Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide, Ethambutol. The medication is prescribed for period of 6-9 months.
Physiotherapist can help in facilitating secretions and positioning of patient.
In some cases, individual might be resistant to isoniazid and Rifampicin this is known as multi drug resistant tuberculosis.