Vertigo is a sense of rotation, rocking, or the world spinning, experienced even when someone is perfectly still. Vertigo by spinning around for a time; this type of induced vertigo lasts for a few moments and then disappears. When vertigo occurs spontaneously or as a result of an injury it tends to last for many hours or even days before resolving. Sound waves travel through the outer ear canal to the ear drum. Now sound is turned into vibrations, which are transmitted through the inner ear via three small bones – the incus, the malleus, and the stapes — to the cochlea and finally to the vestibular nerve, which carries the signal to our brain. Another important part of the inner ear is the collection of semicircular canals. These are positioned at right angles to each other, and are lined with sensitive cells. This distinctive arrangement, in combination with the sensitivity of the hair cells within the canals, provides instantaneous feedback regarding our position in space. Signs and symptoms of vertigo : A sense of spinning or moving. These symptoms can be present even when someone is perfectly still. Movement of the head or body, like rolling over in bed, can escalate or worsen the symptoms. The symptoms are different from lightheadedness or a sense of fainting.,nausea ,vomiting., abnormal eye movements, called nystagmus,weakness or incoordination of one side of the body, stroke or other problem of the brain Causes : -Whether the cause is peripheral or central. Central causes of vertigo arise in the brain or spinal cord, peripheral vertigo is due to a problem within the inner ear. The inner ear can become inflamed because of illness, or small crystals or stones found within the inner ear can become displaced and cause irritation to the small hair cells within the semicircular canals, leading to vertigo.
This is known as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). -Meniere’s disease, vertigo associated with hearing loss and tinnitus (ringing in ear), is caused by fluid buildup within the inner ear; the cause of this fluid accumulation is unknown. Head injuries may lead to damage to the inner ear – stroke affecting certain areas of the brain, Multiple sclerosis , Tumors , A type of migrane headache called basilar artery migraine may develop vertigo. Risk factors : – Head injuries, medications, including some anti-seizure medications, blood pressure medications, antidripressent, and even aspirin. Anything that may increase risk of stroke (high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, and smoking) may also increase risk of developing Vertigo. drinking alcohol.- 2% to 3% of a population is at risk of developing BPPV due to vertigo. older women at higher risk.
By – HOD – Dr Mohammed Aslam Ahmed
Department of Physiotherapy
Uttaranchal (P.G.) College Of Bio-Medical Sciences & Hospital
Uttaranchal College of Education
College Of Nursing UCBMSH