An abdominal aortic aneurysm is an enlarged area in the lower part of the major vessel that supplies blood to the body (aorta). The aorta runs from our heart through the center of our chest and abdomen. The aorta is the largest blood vessel in the body, so a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm can cause life-threatening bleeding.
Depending on the size of the aneurysm and how fast it’s growing, treatment varies from watchful waiting to emergency surgery.
Abdominal aortic aneurysms often grow slowly without symptoms, making difficult to detect. Some aneurysms never rupture, many start small and stay small; others expand over time, some quickly.
If anyone have an enlarging abdominal aortic aneurysm, it should be noticed,
• Deep, constant pain in the abdomen or on the side of abdomen
• Back pain
• A pulse near bellybutton
Aneurysms can develop anywhere along the aorta, but most aortic aneurysms occur in the part of the aorta that’s present in human abdomen. A number of factors can play a role in developing an aortic aneurysm, including:
• Hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). Atherosclerosis occurs when fat and other substances build up on the lining of a blood vessel.
• High blood pressure. High blood pressure can damage and weaken the aorta’s walls.
• Blood vessel diseases. These are diseases that cause blood vessels to become inflamed.
• Infection in the aorta. Rarely, a bacterial or fungal infection might cause abdominal aortic aneurysms.
Risk factors
Abdominal aortic aneurysm risk factors include:
• Tobacco use. Smoking is the strongest risk factor. It can weaken the aortic walls, increasing the risk not only of developing an aortic aneurysm, but of rupture. The longer and more a person smoke or chew tobacco, the greater the chances of developing an aortic aneurysm.
• Age. These aneurysms occur most often in people age 65 and older.
• Being male. Men develop abdominal aortic aneurysms much more often than women do.
• Family history. Having a family history of abdominal aortic aneurysms increases your risk of having the condition.
Tears in one or more of the layers of the wall of the aorta (aortic dissection) or a ruptured aneurysm are the main complications. A rupture can cause life-threatening internal bleeding. In general, the larger the aneurysm and the faster it grows, the greater the risk of rupture.
Signs and symptoms
• Sudden, intense and persistent abdominal or back pain, which can be described as a tearing sensation
• Low blood pressure
• Fast pulse
To prevent an aortic aneurysm or keep an aortic aneurysm from worsening, do the following:
• Don’t use tobacco products. Quit smoking or chewing tobacco and avoid secondhand smoke.
• Eat a healthy diet. Focus on eating a variety of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, poultry, fish and low-fat dairy products. Avoid saturated fat, Trans fats and limited salt.
• Keep the blood pressure and cholesterol under control. If the doctor has prescribed medications, take them as instructed.
• Get regular exercise. Try to get at least 150 minutes a week of moderate aerobic activity.
If anyone is at risk of an aortic aneurysm, the doctor might recommend other measures, such as medications to lower the blood pressure and relieve stress on weakened arteries.
• Brunner & suddarth,”Textbook of Medical Surgical Nursing, 12 edition, 2020 vol -1, Wloters kluwer.
• Lippincott, “Manual of nursing practice”10 Edition, Wloter kluwer.
• Lewis,”Medical surgical nursing” 2014 Edition.



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